The Wolverene Woman

Here is a story from the Blackfeet (also known as the Blackfoot, Piegan, Blood, and/or Pikuni, depending on where and during what time period they are being referred to) of northern Montana and southern Alberta. The current Blackfeet Reservation lies just to the east of Glacier National Park, which was originally the heart of Blackfeet territory. For wolverines, too, Glacier is the heart of home in the US. This short tale is taken from Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians, by Clark Wissler and D.C. Duvall, first published in 1908 by the American Museum of Natural History, and republished in 1995 by the University of Nebraska Press. The story is found on page 162:

The Wolverene-Woman

These Indians have a belief that there are animals with power to change into human beings. Of these the wolverene is one. It often happens that when a man is out hunting, or sitting alone by his campfire, a very handsome woman will come up. Now if he offers her some of the entrails from his butchering, she will take them daintily between the thumb and the forefinger and then throw them away. This is the sign by which she may be known. Should the man take up his gun, the woman will run away as a wolverene. On the other hand, should he allow her to come into camp and engage in familiarities, evil will follow. As soon as he gets home and smells the fire of the lodges, he will fall down dead. Sometimes he will only faint when he smells the fire of the lodges; but even then he will never be the same person again. When men go out to hunt, they are often reminded to keep a lookout for the Wolverene-Woman. When a woman is out alone, the Wolverene-Woman will appear as a fine young man. If the woman permits herself to be seduced, it will be bad for her. As a rule, her people will never hear of her again; but, should she start back to camp and smell the fire of the lodges, she will surely die.

Footnote: ….This is not a formal narrative. While the wolverene is a well-known mythical character, there are no specific myths in which it appears. The Deer-woman of the Dakota and the Wolf Woman of the Pawnee, described by Bush Otter, seem to embody the same conception as is expressed in the above….

Wissler was an anthropologist, and Duvall was half-Piegan and was Wissler’s agent in the field; together, they spent many years collecting and analyzing stories from Montana and Alberta. This is the only mention of the Wolverene Woman, however, and it is tantalizingly brief, with no explanation aside from the footnote. Why wolverines? Among the numerous stories of men or women who fall in love with and marry non-humans (star people, bison, bears), why are wolverines uniquely dangerous creatures with whom to – in the polite Victorian idiom – “engage in familiarities?” How is it that the Wolverene Woman may also become a man? (And as an aside, Blackfeet women must have been admirably adventurous if they were hanging out alone in high mountainous regions where they might have been in danger of seduction-by-gender-bending-shape-shifting-wolverine. Wissler does mention the egalitarian nature of Blackfeet society, but it would be nice to know more about this, too.)

To apply my own biased, acontextual lens, perhaps it simply speaks to the fascination that the species can evoke. I’m struck by the assertion that once a person associates with a wolverine – never mind the precise nature of the familiarities; these days, photographing or collaring or even just seeing one in the wild probably counts – s/he “will never be the same person again.” I know too many people for whom this has proven true. The lesson of the Blackfeet story stands: be wary of the wolverine. One way or another, the animal can change your life.

 

Cree Stories: Wolverine, Wolf, and Fire Medicine

Wolverines feature in the stories, myths, and legends of northern peoples in both the eastern and western hemispheres. The Cree, who occupy a vast swath of southern Canada and some of the northern United States, have a long-standing relationship with the wolverine. I first became aware of the Cree wolverine stories through the work of anthropologist Robert Brightman, whose book Grateful Prey is a classic exploration of the complexity of human-animal relationships in hunting cultures – in this case, the Rock Cree of Manitoba. The material that Brightman analyzes in Grateful Prey is presented in its original form – the transcribed tales of Cree storytellers – in an older, out-of-print book called Acaoohkiwina and Acimowina: Traditional Narratives of the Rock Cree Indians. The books was published by the Canadian Museum of Civilization in 1990, and I managed to find a copy in an obscure corner of a library, the pages falling out, the whole thing looking as though someone had typed up an individual copy with a typewriter and then abandoned it like a message in a bottle, to be retrieved decades later only by a tried and tested wolverine fanatic.  Acaoohkiwina refers to the primordial time-before-humans, when animals spoke and had their own civilizations and when the Trickster Wisahkicahk adventured through the world. Acimowina refers to the time after humans arrived. So the stories incorporate both the history of the creation of the Cree world, and more recent events. Wolverines play a role in both.

Despite the fact that the book felt like it might fall apart in my hands, the stories were vivid and engaging, the voices of the storytellers enlivening the tales. Few wolverine lovers will have the opportunity to experience the deep cultural relationships that exist between humans and animals in subsistence hunting cultures, and I wanted to convey some of this here on the blog. So I wrote to Robert Brightman, and he kindly granted me permission to excerpt the wolverine stories. I also asked if it might be possible to get in touch with the original storytellers to ask for their permission, but they have passed on. So with respect and thanks to them for sharing their stories, I will present their wolverine tales here over the next few posts.

Here, narrated by Cornelius Colomb, is the story Wolverine, Wolf, and Fire Medicine:

There’s this wolverine and the guy who’s with him, Wolf, and they were out hunting one day. The wolf was the one that had the “matches.” They make a magic fire. They just jump over the dry wood and that thing explodes and they make fire. And the wolverine never had that kind of – – of power. So he asked that wolf to have some of the powers.

Oh, the wolf said, “ That’s right, brother. I’ll give it to you.” Because, of course, he was a brother of the animals. So wolverine tried it and the damn thing exploded. “Oh,” wolf said, “ You’re alright, brother. As long as you don’t just play with what I gave you.”

Oh, the wolverine said, “No, no, I wouldn’t do any such thing. I need the fire.”

So later wolverine is monkeying around the shoreline. Sometimes old beaver houses, that’s where you see lots of dry wood. Every time wolverine sees dry wood he wants to make fire. Pretends that he’s cold. Throw a few sticks, jump over it, jump over ‘em, and it explodes. Few minutes, he’s done with the fire and away he goes again.  So every morning, wherever he goes, you see about five or six fires. That wolverine. Making fires all morning for nothing.

So the wolves got mad at him. Said, “I guess our little brother is making fun of our medicine. Every time we see him going he always fires all the way. Gotta cut off the ‘match.’”

So happens, the next fire, wolverine couldn’t make the fire. Tried it again. No. So one cool morning he went up on the hill. Seen lots of fires. All different kinds of animals making different fires. All kinda different smoke from there. One of them’s got different smoke from the other. And him, he had nothing. He was cold. So he hollered, “Brothers! Sisters! I don’t have no lights, no match, no way of making fire. But they’re’ll be people in years ahead. They’ll be wanting to make fire. But what they’ll do is start hunting us when they see our fires… [I]f we don’t have any fire…that way we’ll make it. But if we have fires, they’ll clean us out….” Oh, all the animals agreed with him. “I think that’ll be true,” they say. “If there’s gonna be any people, they gonna hunt us out.” So they holler at him, “Okay, brother, no more fires!”

So that’s how come there’s no fire for the animals. Otherwise they’d be hunted out. [laughs]. It would be lots – – people would be making lots of money as firefighters nowadays. Animals would be putting on all the fires like wolverine.

Wolverines in Ontario

The Cree, whose collective territory stretches from the Labrador coast west to the Canadian Rockies and south to the Great Lakes, are one of the few peoples who have had a long-standing relationship with wolverines. The relationship has existed long enough to become enshrined in the origin stories of some Cree groups. These stories are recorded by anthropologist Robert Brightman in his book Grateful Prey, about the Rock Cree of Manitoba, and by anthropologist Rémi Savard in his book Carcajou et le Sens du Monde (Wolverine and the Meaning of the World; available in .pdf form in French here) about the Montagnais-Naskapi of Quebec and Labrador. In these tales, Wolverine is a trickster and an occasional buffoon, but he possesses powers strong enough to shift the course of events for humans and animals alike. Like most tricksters, Wolverine is sexually voracious, socially inept, a bringer of chaos and trouble, but ultimately indispensible to the functioning of humanity in the world. In Brightman’s work, Wolverine – Omiðacis in Cree – defeats a monstrous Great Skunk who is threatening the world, marries a wolf, convinces the other animals to give up fire and, by implication, culture (placing them at a disadvantage relative to humans), and eventually annoys his wolf in-laws so much, by stealing meat from them, that they kill him, along with all of his children except for one that looks and acts like a wolf. In the Montagnais-Naskapi tales, Wolverine has affairs with human women, defeats the same monstrous Great Skunk with a combination of sorcery and strength, gets into a mountain-climbing contest with a rock, tricks a whole flock of ducks into his cook pot, and then loses his dinner when he falls asleep, leaving his anus (yes, I’m pretty sure I have that translation correct…) on guard; the anus fails to warn him of other people taking the food from the pot, and when Wolverine wakes up, he’s left with nothing but bones. Another set of stories details Wolverine’s further adventures in obtaining food. In one version, he visits Beaver and asks to be fed, at which point Beaver kills and cooks his son and gives him to Wolverine to eat. At the end of the meal they put the bones into the water and the young beaver reincarnates. In the version of the story in which the hungry Wolverine visits Caribou and asks for food, Caribou cuts off a piece of his wife’s dress (her hide?) and serves it to Wolverine. Later, when Caribou is hungry, he visits Wolverine and asks for a similar favor in return, but Wolverine is unable to live up to his obligations. Not only does he cut off the entire back of his wife’s dress, exposing her backside and embarrassing her, but her garment turns out to be inedible to Caribou, who leaves, disgruntled by Wolverine’s inability to reciprocate his social responsibility.

Wolverine in these stories serves as a powerful reminder of both the strengths and the pitfalls of individuality in the face of pressure to conform to social expectations. An individual hearing these tales could chose to be a wolf or a caribou or a beaver – well-socialized, adapted to living in groups and cooperating – or could chose to be a wolverine – a trouble-making, occasionally brilliant but more frequently destructive being incapable of living in harmony with other animals or fulfilling his social obligations.

These stories are fascinating, but the Montagnais-Naskapi tales evoke more than morals about social order among the Cree; they also reflect ecological change over the past century. Wolverines are believed to have been extirpated from eastern Canada, perhaps in conjunction with declines in caribou herds and the development of southern Ontario and Quebec. Likewise, wolverines have long been considered extirpated from Cree territory in southern Ontario, although Audrey Magoun’s surveys, conducted between 2003 and 2005, found them to be present in northwestern Ontario.

Then, sometime in January, a trapper near the coast of James Bay, in southeastern Ontario, began seeing strange tracks along his trapline. His marten began to disappear from his traps. Stories began to circulate through the town of a tough, crazy animal that no one around there had seen before. Eventually, they realized it was a wolverine. The trapper finally caught and killed it, although not before the animal had become legendary. At an educational conference for the Mushkegowuk Cree two weeks ago, writer Joseph Boyden chose to use this wolverine’s (tragic, if the events he narrates are accurate) story to illustrate the toughness of the landscape and of the Cree themselves. In the full piece, which deals with broader issues around Aboriginal rights in Canada, the wolverine’s story is found under the section entitled Act 2. I’ll excerpt it here:

Here’s a lesson from the land that is Mushkegowuk:

My friend William has been trapping marten all winter. One day in early January, he began to notice that a number of his marten traps had been destroyed and their contents eaten by some sort of powerful animal. It was strong as a bear, managing to pull traps right off the trees, traps hammered on by four inch spikes. But clearly, it wasn’t a bear. And a fisher wasn’t powerful enough to do this. Soon, when he identified the tracks, it dawned on William. A wolverine had come into his territory.

About that time, stories began to circulate about this wolverine. Another trapper had actually snared the wolverine but it somehow managed to fight its way out despite nearly severing its own head, cutting itself to the windpipe. And then, a few days later, the conductor on the Little Bear surprised this wolverine and the animal, not having seen a train before, ran down the tracks to try and escape it. But the train caught up and hit the wolverine so that it flew into the bush. He survived this, too, scampering away into the forest.

And, so, the wolverine kept destroying William’s traps, devouring the marten. For a month, William tracked it and set conabear traps for it, and for a month, the wolverine tried to heal from its wounds and kept escaping the wily William. But finally, its luck ran out. William and his son Ben finally managed to snare the animal. They found it, still alive, in a conabear trap one morning. Knowing how ferocious the animal was, they didn’t want to get near enough to club it, so Ben shot it in the neck to try and put it out of its misery. Once he did that, Ben approached the wolverine, now lying on its back, and poked it with a stick. The wolverine flew into a rage, managing to grab the stick in his paws and pulling it from Ben’s hands. That’s when William walked up, and finally ended the mighty struggle with one more bullet.

That’s a true story. And the lesson here? That’s an easy one. You got to be tough to live in Mushkegowuk. And wolverines are nicknamed demon bears for a reason.

I read this story a couple of weeks ago and I thought it was just another trapping tale, until I stumbled across a story about Joseph Boyden’s brother snowmobiling 800 miles to go to a Tragically Hip concert. Buried in the text of this story was another reference to this wolverine, giving it a location – which, as it turns out, is a place where wolverines haven’t been confirmed for many, many years.

What does it mean? One of the tricky things about science is the fact that we can never prove a negative. Are wolverines really gone from Labrador? Were they really extirpated from southern Ontario? We don’t know for sure – maybe they’ve been hanging out there all along and no one’s seen them. Or maybe this animal – hungry, injured, obviously trying to eke out a living – was the first of its kind to venture through the region since the days when Wolverine was still the great Trickster of the Cree. The wolverine in question, tough as it was, is dead now, and maybe no one will see one for another generation or two. On the other hand, maybe wolverines are coming back, making themselves more visible, ready to become part of our stories once again.

As part of that effort at visibility, here’s a video from the Scotchman Peaks wolverine project, where USFS recently captured a gulo on film in the Cabinet Mountains. And here is a video of Jasper the wolverine, of Chasing the Phantom fame, in an upcoming National Geographic television show, “America the Wild.” An episode entitled “Wolverine King” will air this Sunday, March 11th. A second clip features Jasper “rescuing” the host of the show from a contrived avalanche. Enjoy.

Wolverine the Creator

Here’s a brief legend about Wolverine the Creator, from the Innu tribe of Quebec:

” Long ago, Kuekuatsheu [wolverine] built a big boat like Noah’s Ark, and put all the various animal species in it. There was a great deal of rain and the land was flooded. He told the mink to dive into the water to retrieve some mud and rocks, which he mixed together to make an island. This island is the world which we presently inhabit along with all the animals.”

I took this from an article in the Boise Weekly about a Jeff Copeland lecture last week. Unfortunately I didn’t know about the lecture beforehand, or I would have publicized it, but the legend is nice. ‘Kuekuatsheu’ is the word from which one of the animal’s French names, ‘caracajou,’ derives; early French trappers in Quebec knew the animal by its Innu name and adapted it to a French pronunciation.

Closer to home, a writer in Washington state had an encounter with a wolverine in the Cascades, and if the author of the post wasn’t impressed enough to consider the wolverine a Creator God, the degree of excitement was a near miss. It’s nice to see people so amped up about gulos.

Closer still, dogs treed a wolverine in a campground just south of Glacier National Park. The wolverine, which the campground caretaker speculated was a young animal, was unhurt and later left the area. It might have been a dispersing juvenile who happened into the campground, but in any case, it’s further evidence that attractants such as garbage should be managed carefully at campground – not just for the sake of bears, but for wolverines as well.

Related to issues facing the wolverine, a recent study suggests that the consequences of species loss to climate change may be greater than originally thought. Up to a third of all species may go extinct, but even within species that remain, up to 80% of genetic diversity may be lost. In the case of wolverines, we might see this if gulos remained on the landscape in the Arctic, but populations with unique haplotypes were lost as populations further south died off. Mongolian wolverines, for example, possess an apparently unique haplotype (mng1) that would disappear if wolverines were knocked out of mountain ranges at the southern margin of their range. In turn, this would reduce the genetic diversity of the species as a whole, reducing options for the remaining wolverines and eventually leading to genetic bottlenecking and perhaps extinction further down the road. Not a happy thought, for wolverines or for the other species who might be affected.

And finally – just to end on a happier, although not-entirely-gulocentric, note – a grizzly bear with two cubs has been sighted near Shelby, Montana – the furthest east of any grizzly since they were nearly wiped out in the 19th century. The fact that the bear is a female is significant; like wolverines, a female bear tends to adopt a territory close to her mother’s, which means that the benchmark of population expansion is reproductive females (as opposed to the more wide-ranging young males.) Hopefully this bear and her cubs will stay out of trouble and continue to boost the grizzly population and range.